Sabtu, 24 September 2011


Keroncong is the name of the ukulele and the type of musical instrument, and the name of the type music that distinctive Indonesia keroncong musical instruments, flutes, and a singer uses. 

The origin
Keroncong roots from a type of music known as fado introduced by Portuguese sailors and merchant slave ship that country since the 16th century to the archipelago. From mainland India (Goa), the music comes first in Malacca and later played by the slaves of the Moluccas. The weakening influence of the Portuguese in the 17th century the archipelago do not necessarily mean the loss of this music. This early form of music called Moresco (a dance of Spanish origin such as polkas rather slow pace), one of the songs rearranged Kusbini now known as Kr. Muritsku, accompanied by a stringed instrument. Keroncong music from the Tugu monument called keroncong. In the development, signed a number of traditional elements of the archipelago, such as the use of the flute as well as some parts of the gamelan. At about the 19th century musical form of this mixture is popular in many parts of the archipelago, even to the Malay Peninsula. The golden age continued until sometime in the 1960s, and then disappeared following the arrival of a wave of popular music (rock music that developed since 1950, victories and Beatle music, etc. since 1961 until now). Yet keroncong music still played and enjoyed by all walks of life in Indonesia and Malaysia so far.
Musical Instruments
In its earliest form, accompanied by string music Moresco, such as violin, cello and ukulele. Percussion is also sometimes used. Set the orchestra of this type are still used by keroncong monument, which still form keroncong played by the Community of Portuguese descendants of slaves from Ambon, who lived in Kampung Tugu, North Jakarta, which then evolved to the south Gambir Kemayoran and the Betawi music mingle with Tanjidor (years 1880-1920). Year 1920-1960 development center moved to Solo, and adapt to a slower pace of life based on Java.
Pem-"native"-an art made keroncong mixed with musical instruments, such as

Indian Sitar
Bamboo Flute
drum, kenong, and Sharon as a set of gamelan
Currently, the instrument used in the orchestra include keroncong

choke ukulele, string 3 (nylon), the tone sequence is G, B and E, as the main instrument voicing crong - crong called keroncong (found in 1879 in Hawaii, and is a milestone early onset keroncong music)
CAK ukulele, strings 4 (steel), the order of the note A, D, F #, and B. So if other musical instruments playing scales C, CAK to play on scale F (known as F);
acoustic guitar as a guitar melody, played with style kontrapuntis (anti-melody);
violinist (replaces violin), now the Amati or Stradivarius of Cremona Italy around the year 1600 has never changed his model to the present;
flute (replacing the bamboo flute), the Tempo Era Doeloe Flute Albert wore (a black wooden flute with holes and valves, slightly broken voice, orchestra samples Lief Java), while in the era of eternal Keroncong have used Bohm flute (all metal pipe with a valve, the sound is more refined with a beautiful tone ornaments, examples of flutis Sunarno Solo and Beny Waluyo from Jakarta);
Cello, betot replace the drums, also has not changed since its made by Amati and Stradivarius of Cremona Italy in 1600, played in only keroncong typically picked / Pizzicato;
bass (replacing Gong), a plucked bass, has never changed since the Amati and Stradivarius of Cremona Italy in 1600 made him;
The guard is owned by the rhythm of the ukulele and bass. Kontrapuntis guitar and cello, rhythmic chords that transition to arrange. Violin melody serves as a guide, but also as decoration / ornament below. Trashy fill the top decoration, floating melodies fill the empty space.
Keroncong form mixed with popular music is now using an organ and synthesizer to accompany the song keroncong (at one stage all organs of the party could play keroncong, dangdut, rock, polka, march).
type keroncong
Keroncong music is more inclined to the chord and the type of instrument used. Since the mid-20th century, has been known for at least three species keroncong, which can be detected from the pattern of progression akordnya. For those musicians who already understand the plot, the numbers keroncong really not difficult to guide because not fit the prevailing pattern. Development is done by maintaining the consistency of the pattern. In addition, hybrid forms and adaptations.
The development of contemporary music keroncong
The experience of a long evolution since the arrival of the Portuguese in Indonesia (1522) and the settlement of slaves in the area of ​​Kampung Tugu in 1661, and this is the early evolution of the long keroncong music (1661-1880), almost two centuries, but has not revealed the true identity keroncong voice crong crong-crong, so it can be said of the music keroncong not born in 1661-1880.
And finally keroncong music experience last a short period of evolution since 1880 until now, with three stages of the recent developments that have taken place and an estimate of new developments (keroncong millennium). Early milestone was in 1879, when the discovery of the Hawaiian ukulele, which soon became the main instrument in keroncong (voice ukulele: crong-crong-crong), while the beginning of the millennium keroncong existing signs, but not yet developed (Bondan Prakoso).
Four stages of development

(A) Period keroncong old days (1880-1920)

(B) The eternal keroncong (1920-1960), and

(C) The period of modern keroncong (1960-2000), and

(D) The keroncong Millennium (2000-present)
Period keroncong old days (1880-1920)
Ukulele was found in 1879 in Hawaii, so it is expected the following year a new Keroncong incarnated in 1880, the monument area and then spread to southern regions and Gambir Kemayoran (see there is a track and Markets Gambir Kemayoran, approximately 1913). Comedy Stamboul 1891-1903 born in the town of the port of Surabaya in 1891, a performance style Istanbul, which held a roadshow in the Netherlands East Indies, Singapore and Malaysia by the railroad and steamship. In general, the show's story in 1001 Nights (Arabic) and the story of Europe (and the People's Opera), including the story of India and Persia. As an interlude between the scene and the opening, played marching music, polka, harp, and keroncong. Special music keroncong Stambul known at that time I, II and III Stambul Stambul.
At that time Stambul upbeat numbers (approximately 120 meters to beat a quarter tone), called Kampung Tugu where residents and Keroncong Kusbini Portuguese, while vocal Keroncong listed as fast, and mingle with the native Tanjidor Batavia. At present, the Indo-known musicians, and the legendary violinist M. Sagi (note the inclusion of the song violin Idris Sardi Stambul II Jali Jali-based appointments of Mr. Sagi). Because it is known that the length opera song is 16 bars, which include:  

Keroncong adaptation of gamelan music tradition known as the Java style, which differs from the style in question here. Java-style has a special feature on the addition of instruments including harp, drums (can be represented by the game modification cello-style drums), Sharon, and the presence or suluk in the form of the introduction of singing without instruments to take to open in full before the rhythm begins. Idioms Java in 1968 has grown to mix.
Generally have a pop song structures, A - A - B - A or even A - B - C - D view of the number 32 bars. Java Idioms famous song in 1958 was the establishment of Anjar Any (1936-2008): Yen Ing Tawang Ana Lintang (Tawang in Javanese means the clouds, sky, and the other meaning of the name of a village in Magetan, if a star in the sky). Java-style Waljinah ever became famous as a champion of the high school level in RRI Solo 1958.
Sari Mix
Gunung Kidul in (Yogyakarta) in 1968 introduced a combined Manthous gamelan instruments and the music keroncong, which became known as Mix. Now Solo, Sragen, Ngawi, and the surrounding areas, known as a center of musical artists campursari. Regent Sukoharjo enliven even campursari exchanges.
Koes Plus keroncong-
Koes Plus is known as a pioneer of rock music in Indonesia, in about the year 1974 was also instrumental in the rock keroncong. The meeting is Keroncong keroncong Koes Plus with the structure of the mixture (in Dutch called Mix-Form or the UK Combine form) between Stambul Keroncong II and style.
As a rock band in Indonesia could follow in the footsteps Koes Plus to preserve their own culture as keroncong, then how beautiful music can be popular with rock rhythm Indonesia hometown, keroncong music does not die (vocal greetings). Mbah Hopefully the younger generation is still the music keroncong Indonesia.
Keroncong Dangdut (Congdut)
Keroncong dangdut (Congdut) is the response to the rapid dangdut music influences in popular music in Indonesia since the year 1980. Along with the strengthening of the juice blend in the popular music scene of ethnic Javanese, a number of musicians, supposedly started from Surakarta, inserting elements into a dangdut hit songs and new classical Javanese style. Didi Kempot is the protagonist of the reform movement. The songs are well known as other racing Station Sewu Kuto.
Glory Music Keroncong period. During the period is a period of triumph Keroncong Keroncong Modern Music, where there was music everywhere Idioms Java Keroncong Beat, Mix, Koes Plus and recently Congdut Kempot Didi, to Suriname and the Netherlands (2004-2008). Apparently this is the musical heyday Keroncong so afraid Keroncong Will Dead (2008, speech before he died) Gesang.

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